Government, public sector – The governing authority of a nation provides the publicly-accountable and transparent structures that govern such activities as a legislative unit to establish laws, an executive unit to carry out legislation, courts, public schools, the health care system, public transportation, police and fire protection, correctional institutions, and public utilities. These activities may be conducted in partnership with private entities, or delegated to such entities, but it is the government that is accountable for the activity.

Human rights – Human rights are minimum standards of legal, civil and political freedom that are granted universally via the United Nations, with the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights as the global standard.

International NGOs – Non -governmental organizations, in the context of this document, refer to those organizations that are independently organized and funded from the governments in the countries where they operate. These entities are typically based in relatively wealthy countries, and are considered to be providing “foreign aid” to lower-income countries, with some sort of charitable purpose. They can be for-profit organizations, but more typically are not-for-profit.

Pre-service education – Pre-service education for medical, nursing, other health professionals consists of the basic training required to achieve the licensure requirements of the profession; typically, this training is provided in colleges, universities, and other post-secondary education settings.

Continuing education – Continuing education for medical, nursing, other health professionals consists of educational activities that serve to maintain, develop, or increase knowledge, skills, and professional performance and relationships that a health worker uses to provide services for patients, the public, or the profession.

Volunteer – Someone who willingly gives unpaid help in the form of time, service or skills, through an organization or group.